Tips for cron

Hi there,

We all know that if one wants to schedule jobs (commands or shell scripts) to run periodically at certain times or dates, he can use `cron`.

If you `man cron` you would like to get:

Cron – daemon to execute scheduled commands.

And here are some tips for newcomes:

1. Use absolute path instead of relative path. For example:

*/5 * * * * /home/ubuntu/cron/test.sh

And what in the test.sh should also use the absolute path.

 

2.  I haven’t thought about yet 🙂

 

PHP 调用 SHELL 需要注意的地方

最近需要从前端调用系统命令实现一些东西,然后返回到前端来。

思来想去,觉得 html <-> php <-> shell的模式应该不错。从html到php可以用ajax实现动态交互,但php调用shell的这个过程需要注意一些地方。在这里浪费了不少时间。

第一:调用方式

PHP提供共了3个专门的执行外部命令的函数:system(),exec(),passthru()。具体的用法Google一下已经很多了。

第二:权限问题

由于我的web项目是在apache目录下的,但apache并没有足够的权限执行一些诸如mkdir等命令,导致我拔一些东西并储存的时候毫无反应。简单的做法就是修改一下web项目所在目录权限就可以了。

比如

$ chmod -R 777 /home/www/example

 

Linux系统启动过程

面试的时候被问到Linux启动过程,没有答得很好。回来收集了一些资料,发现有一篇博客写得不错,不过是英文的。特翻译过来供广大小伙伴们参考:)

原文: http://www.thegeekstuff.com/2011/02/linux-boot-process/

———————————————————- 我是背景 ——————————————————–

通常,我们按下开机键,几秒钟后,我们就能看到Linux的登录界面。

但是你有没有想过,在屏幕的背后,这一切是怎么发生的呢?

下面会为大家分六个阶段简述一下一个典型的Linux操作系统的启动过程。

linux-boot-process

1. BIOS

  • BIOS,即 Basic Input/Output System BIOS,基本输入输出系统。
  • 对系统做完整性检查,即计算机硬件能否满足运行的基本条件。如果硬件出现问题,主板会发出不同含义的蜂鸣,启动中止,比如内存卡没有插好。
  • 查找,加载以及执行引导装载程序。
  • 它会在软盘、光盘或者硬盘驱动器等上查找引导装载程序。你也可以在BIOS启动过程中按F12或者F2(一般来说是这两个键)来改变这个顺序。比如重装系统的时候,你在BIOS阶段按F12,然后选择从U盘启动。
  • 一旦引导装载程序被找到并且加载到了内存中,BIOS就将计算机的控制权交给它了。
  • 简单来说,BIOS阶段就是加载并执行MBR

2. MBR

  • MBR,即Master Boot Record. MBR, 主引导记录。
  • 位于启动盘的第一扇区,一般为 /dev/hda或者/dev/sda
  • MBR 共有512位,由三个部分组成,1)第1-446位,主引导加载程序信息 2)接下来64位存放分区表 3)最后两位用来存储MBR有效标记
  • 它包含了GRUB的信息(或者在一些老系统上的LILO信息)
  • 简单来说,MBR阶段就是加载并执行GRUB

3. GRUB

    • GRUB,即Grand Unified Bootloader,启动管理器。
    • 如果你在操作系统分区中装了好几个内核,通过GRUB,你就可以选择启动哪一个。
    • GRUB会展示一个初始化的界面,等待你的选择,如果过了等待时间,它就会加载在grub配置文件中指定的默认内核镜像。
    • GRUB能够识别文件系统(在老Linux系统上的LILO并不能识别文件系统)。
    • Grub 配置文件在 /boot/grub/grub.conf (/etc/grub.conf 只是一个链接)。下面是一个CentOS中的grub.conf文件信息
#boot=/dev/sda
default=0
timeout=5
splashimage=(hd0,0)/boot/grub/splash.xpm.gz
hiddenmenu
title CentOS (2.6.18-194.el5PAE)
          root (hd0,0)
          kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.18-194.el5PAE ro root=LABEL=/
          initrd /boot/initrd-2.6.18-194.el5PAE.img
  • 正如你从上面所看到的那样,它包含了内核以及initrd镜像的信息,initrd中含有内核所需的一些基本模块驱动。
  • 简单来说,GRUB阶段就是加载并执行内核以及initrd镜像。

4. Kernel

  • 挂载根文件系统,这个已经在grub.conf文件中”root=”指出。
  • 运行/sbin/init 程序来初始化系统环境
  • 由于/sbin/init 是第一个被Linux内核所执行的程序,它的进程ID号为1。可以通过命令“ps -ef | grep init”看到。
  • initrd,即 Initial RAM Disk,是用内存模拟的磁盘,一个临时文件系统。
  • 在真正的根文件系统被挂载之前,initrd被内核作为一个临时的文件系统,其中含有内核所需的一些基本模块驱动,内核启动时展开该initrd来加载相应的驱动,在该驱动的补充之下从而挂载上根分区;

5. Init

  • 根据/etc/inittab 文件来设定LInux的运行级别。
  • Linux的运行等级设定如下:
    • 0 – halt,关机
    • 1 – Single user mode,单用户模式
    • 2 – Multiuser, without NFS,无网络支持的多用户模式
    • 3 – Full multiuser mode,有网络支持的多用户模式
    • 4 – unused,保留,未使用
    • 5 – X11,有网络支持有X-Window支持的多用户模式
    • 6 – reboot,重新启动
  • Init程序根据/etc/inittab指定的默认运行等级来加载适当的程序。
  • 执行命令‘grep initdefault /etc/inittab’可以看到系统默认的运行等级
  • 如果你想给自己找点儿麻烦,你可以把默认运行等级设置为0或者6,鉴于你已经知道了0和6代表什么,我估计你不会那样干:)
  • 通常你会设置默认运行等级为3或者5

6. Runlevel programs

  • 当Linux系统启动以来以后,你会看到有很多服务也跟着运行起来了。比如你可能会看到“starting sendmail …. OK”。这些就是设置运行等级以后会对应加载的程序了。
  • 系统会根据你设置的系统运行等级来运行下面某一个目录中的所有程序。
    • Run level 0 – /etc/rc.d/rc0.d/
    • Run level 1 – /etc/rc.d/rc1.d/
    • Run level 2 – /etc/rc.d/rc2.d/
    • Run level 3 – /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/
    • Run level 4 – /etc/rc.d/rc4.d/
    • Run level 5 – /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/
    • Run level 6 – /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/
  • 请注意,这里面也包含直接指向/etc目录下的符号链接。也就是说,/etc/rc0.d 是指向/etc/rc.d/rc0.d的链接。
  • 在 /etc/rc.d/rc*.d/ 这些目录下面,你可以看到很多名字以S或者K开头的程序
  • 以S开头的程序是在启动过程中使用的,S代表startup。
  • 以K开头的程序是在关闭过程中使用的,K代表kill。
  • 这里还有数字出现在S或者K的后面,它们代表了程序的执行顺序。
  • 比如说,S12syslog 是用来启动syslog deamon,他的启动顺序是12,S80sendmail是用来启动sendmail daemon,他的启动顺序是80。那么显然syslog会先于sendmail启动。

好了,就是这些,这就是在Linux启动过程中所发生的事情。

Linux 下 C++ 连接 Mysql

——国外有一篇博客写得挺好,有一些小错误,改正以后翻译过来,发这里了。

C++是一个效率非常高的编程语言

Linux 是一个类Unix操作系统,它促进了开源软件社区的发展,并且用这些开源软件就几乎足以构建一个复杂精妙的企业系统。

MySQL是一个流行的多线程、多用户的数据库管理系统,全球有超过1000万的安装量。

 

这篇文章将演示如何在Linux下用C++连接MySQL。

首先我们需要将所需要的头文件和库全部包含进来

#include <stdio.h>

#include <mysql.h>

然后我们来定义一下main函数

int main()

{

// code 

return 0;

};

然后我们定义一下需要用到的变量,你应该将这些写到main函数里去。

MYSQL_RES *result;

MYSQL_ROW row;

MYSQL *connection, mysql;

int state;

既然要使用MySQL数据库,我们首先就得连上它,使用下面的代码即可:

mysql_init(&mysql);

connection = mysql_real_connect(&mysql,host,usr,pswd,database,0,0,0);

其中

host – 数据库所在主机的名字,比如 “localhost” 或者 “192.168.250.100”

usr – 连接数据库时使用的用户名

pswd – 连接数据库时使用的密码

database – 数据库的名称

如果有错误发生,如用户名/密码不匹配,我们可以通过以下代码获取到错误信息:

if (connection == NULL)

{

printf(“%s\n”, mysql_error(&mysql));

return 1;

}

如果没有错误,那么证明我们连接好了,现在我们来执行一个简单的查询语句,其中mytable指的是你指定的数据库中的一张表名:

state = mysql_query(connection, “SELECT * FROM mytable”);

if (state !=0)

{

printf(“%s\n”, mysql_error(connection));

return 1;

}

如果成功执行,我们可以使用一个变量来存储查询结果:

result = mysql_store_result(connection);

使用mysql_num_rows函数,我们可以得到查询结果的条数:

printf(“Rows:%lld\n”,mysql_num_rows(result));

使用mysql_fetch_rowwhile循环中处理每一条查询结果:

while ( ( row=mysql_fetch_row(result)) != NULL )

{

printf(” %s, %s\n”, (row[0] ? row[0] : “NULL”), (row[1] ? row[1] : “NULL” ));

}

最后,别忘了释放内存:

mysql_free_result(result);

mysql_close(connection);

IMPORTANT!!! How to make this code under Linux?

重要!!!!在Linux中怎样编译上面的代码呢?

g++ test.cpp -I/usr/local/mysql/include /usr/local/mysql/lib/libmysqlclient.so

路径有可能不同,修改为自己的即可。

/usr/local/mysql/include 中含有mysql.h等头文件

/usr/local/mysql/lib/libmysqlclient.so 这个动态链接库也是需要的

Enjoy!

 

 

PHP与C++性能比较

PHP是速度很快的脚本语言,但是用了框架以后好像感觉挺慢的。于是猜测会不会PHP本身也不是很快。如果不是很快,能否采用PHP调用本地动态链接库的形式来提升速度。 于是有了下面的对比实验。

测试环境

1. 硬件环境如下图所示。

Selection_186

2. 软件环境

系统: Ubuntu 12.10

gcc版本:

Thread model: posix
gcc version 4.7.2 (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.2-2ubuntu1)

php版本:

PHP 5.3.22 (cli) (built: Mar 14 2013 20:37:16)
Copyright (c) 1997-2013 The PHP Group
Zend Engine v2.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2013 Zend Technologies

php开发环境: LAMP,所有安装包均是通过源码编译安装而成,编译过程中会自动根据本机各项参数进行最优配置。性能比apt-get install命令直接安装好。 关于以源码包方式搭建LAMP请参考文章:http://keping.me/linux-php-dev-by-source-style/

测试方法

由于冒泡排序在时间复杂度上相当稳定——O(n2),在最大程度上减少了数据可能带来的影响,故采取计算冒泡排序的运行时间的方法来进行此次实验。

对比测试分组

分组1: C++直接调用程序内的函数

分组2: C++调用打包好的动态链接库文件(.so文件,该文件也是自己写好并打包)

分组3: PHP直接调用程序内的函数

分组4: PHP调用打包好的动态链接库文件(.so文件,该文件也是自己写好并打包)

测试数据

数据总体规模为5,500,000个0~999的整数。

每一实验组,循环执行次数为30250,000,000,000次。

测试所用数据可以从以下地址下载:

http://keping.me/david-uploads/data/data_cpp.tar.gz

测试数据生成代码如下

[cpp]
#include
#include
#include

using std::cout;
using std::endl;
int main (int argc, char *argv[])
{
int scale;

scale = atoi(argv[1]);      // argv[1] will be 10000, 20000 … 90000, 100000

srand(unsigned(time(0)));   // use the UNIX timestamp as seeds
for(int i = 1; i <= scale; i++)
{
cout << rand() % 1000 << "\t";
if(i % 10 == 0) cout << endl;
}
}
[/cpp]

可以看到是0~999的整数,一共有10种测试数据的规模,分别放在十个不同目录下,如下图所示

Selection_159

目录名称代表数据的规模,如data_90000 表示数据规模为90,000个,同理data_100000表示数据规模为100,000个,依次类推。每一个目录下面包含10组测试数据,以data_100000举例,如下图所示

Selection_161

每个文件则包含100,000个0~999的随机数

Selection_163

数据文件打包下载地址:  地址1(包含数据以及 “分组1” 的测试结果)

以下是对比测试。

首先是 “分组1” 的测试

为了尽量保证算法一致,所以没有采用指针等数据结构,变量的交换也采用最原始的设置中间变量机制,关键代码如下:

[cpp]
void bubble(int *arr, int len)
{
int tmp;

for(int i = 0; i < len – 1; i++)
{
for(int j = i + 1; j < len; j++)
{
if(arr[i] > arr[j])
{
tmp = arr[i];
arr[i] = arr[j];
arr[j] = tmp;
}
}
}
}

[/cpp]

以下是data_100000目录下num_1数据文件的运行结果文件result_1的部分截图, 用时13.74秒

Selection_164

第一行输出记录的是每一秒中所含的时钟数;第二行记录的是排序开始之前程序已经运行的时钟数;第三行记录的是排序结束以后程序运行的时钟数;第四行则可以根据前面的数据得出本次排序运行的时间,以秒记,保留两位小数便于对比。

下表则是data_100000目录下的所有数据文件(num_1 至 num_9)的运行结果

cpp_y

可以看到,对于100,000级别的数据,进行冒泡排序, “分组1” 用了大约13.8秒左右的时间。下面将给出对于不同数据规模(data_10000~data_100000)的平均测试数据

cpp_average

其中X轴方向上表示数据规模为 10K(即使10,000),20K,,,100K的测试数据。
其中Y轴方向上表示测试的平均时间,对每一数据规模均有10个测试数据,此处为平均值。
从图中可以看出,结果基本符合 y=x的函数曲线,冒泡排序还是相当稳定的。。。

分组2的测试 

目录结构如下,其中libbubble.so文件即为冒泡排序打包成动态链接库。将会在main函数中调用。分组2与分组1的主要区别也在此,分组1中是在main里调用本地的冒泡排序函数,而分组2则是通过调用.so文件中的冒泡排序函数。

Selection_180

运行的测试数据来源与“测试分组1”完全一致,测试结果储存在相应目录下,如下图所示。

Selection_179

将测试结果的数据处理以后,得到下图。

cpp_so_average

速度竟然比C++调用自己内部的函数更快,估计是打包成动态链接库的时候,编译器已经做了优化。

分组3的测试

接下来是PHP执行冒泡排序的测试。

目录结构如下图所示,将调用PHP写的冒泡排序函数进行数据测试。 关

Selection_181

关键代码如下

[php]
for($i = 0; $i < $len – 1; $i++)
{
for($j = $i + 1; $j < $len; $j++)
{
if($arr[$i] > $arr[$j])
{
$tmp = $arr[$i];
$arr[$i] = $arr[$j];
$arr[$j] = $tmp;
}
}
}
[/php]

可以看到,为了保证算法上的一致性,代码结构与实验分组一是一样的。

由于实在是比较慢,所以写了一个shell脚本来执行,shell脚本如下图所示(未完整截图)

Selection_182

将分组3的测试结果的数据处理以后,得到下图。

php_average

可以看到在相同数据规模下,分组3的运行时间要远远大于分组1以及分组2,并且随着数据规模的上升,总体呈现出上升趋势。

分组4的测试

分组4与分组3的区别在于:分组4则是调用以C++编写的动态链接库中的冒泡排序算法,并将该动态链接库以扩展的形势添加到了PHP系统中;分组3则是直接调用PHP写的冒泡排序算法。

将分组4的测试结果的数据处理以后,得到下图。

php_so_average

可以看到虽然还是PHP进行冒泡排序算法,但是效率得到了极大的提高。

最后是对比图

首先看一下数据表

QQ图片20130620232930

其中10000,20000, …, 100000代表数据规模,表中数据为执行的秒数。可以看到分组3,也就是PHP分组,大约是其他分组的100倍至170倍时间。以至于如果不采取log函数,将完全看不到其他三个分组的图。下图是对上表每个数据取以10为底的对数以后,得到的数值描绘的图。

QQ图片20130620230529

大致结论,PHP执行速度很慢,如果实在要采取PHP的方式,请采用将C/C++编写的动态链接库,经过Zend API的转化添加成PHP扩展,PHP再调用该扩展的形势,性能如分组4所示,是非常快的。

参考文献

[1]       Al-Qahtani, S. S., Arif, R., Guzman, L. F., Pietrzynski, P., & Tevoedjre, A. (2010). Comparing selected criteria of programming languages java, PHP, C++, perl, haskell, AspectJ, ruby, COBOL, bash scripts and scheme revision 1.0.Cornell University.

[2]       Sterling Hughes. Extending PHP [J]. Web Techniques, 2001, 6(1), 56 – 60.

[3]       PHP, http://www.php.net/manual/en/internals2.structure.php

[4]       Wikipedia, PHP, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PHP

Linux 常用命令

老是忘记一些命令。于是便记了下来:)

SSH常用命令

1. 不带端口号的连接:
$ ssh -l username ip
$ ssh -l ubuntu0 192.168.123.100

2. 带端口号的链接:
$ ssh -l username ip -p port
$ ssh -l root 224.217.33.111 -p 8888

SCP常用命令

1. 从远端拷贝单个文件到本地,带端口号(-P 为大写):
$ scp -P port root@ip:path_remote path_local
$ scp -P 8888 root@224.217.33.111:/home/aku/www/weekphp/sql.txt /home/david/

2. 从远端拷贝整个文件目录到本地,带端口号(-P 为大写):
$ scp -r -p port username@ip:path_remote path_local
$ scp -r -P 8888 root@224.217.33.111:/home/aku/www/weekphp/ /tmp/

3. 从本地拷贝单个文件到远端,不带端口号:
$ scp path_local username@ip:path_remote
$ scp index.html ubuntu0@192.168.123.100:/tmp/

查找文件内容

1. 在某一目录下查找是否有包含指定内容的文件
$ grep STRING PATH -r
$ grep “function render(” icampus/ -r

2. 使用find在某一目录下查找某一文件
$ find <指定目录> <指定条件> <指定动作>
$ find / -name “mysql.h” -ls
搜索根目录中,所有文件名以mysql.h开头的文件,并显示它们的详细信息。

Compile and Install LAMP(Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP) from source on Ubuntu 12.10

This blog will guide you finish the compiling and installing a LAMP Server from source on Ubuntu step by step.

Of course, it will take you a little much time(Thanks for the 15 source packages ) ,so a cup of coffee will be a good choice 🙂

Zeroth. Here follows some source packages, which will be used when we build the LAMP.Some of them are the newest, others not.

1. httpd-2.4.4

2. mysql-5.6.10

3. php.5.3.22

4. libxml2-2.6.30

5. libmcrypt-2.5.8

6. zlib-1.2.7

7. gd-2.0.35

8. autoconf-2.61

9. freetype-2.3.5

10. libpng-1.6.0

11. jpeg-6b

12. apr-1.4.6

13. apr-util-1.4.1

14. pcre-8.32

15. libtool-2.2.6

First. check the basic system info

1. $ uname -a:
Selection_103

2. check whether there is gcc or not
$ gcc -v
Selection_104
Whoops!!!There is not,but never mind ,just install it.
$ sudo apt-get install gcc

Now, we can begin to build all the source packages:)

Second. Compile and install the source packages

2.1 install the newest libxml2 library files
2.1.1 download the libxml2-2.6.30.tar.gz from the link above or the official site, and put it into the directory /usr/local/src/, then extract it to directory  libxml2-2.6.30/ and then get into that derectory. Command lines as follow:
$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      // enter the directory which the source package lays
$ sudo tar zxvf libxml2-2.6.30.tar.gz         // extract it
$ cd libxml2-2.6.30/                                    // enter the directory

2.1.2 use command “configure” to check and configure the system environment and generate the configured files. Command lines as follow:
$ ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libxml2
the option –prefix=/usr/local/libxml2 here is to tell the installer to install it to directory /usr/local/libxml2 .When it finished, there will be a tips “Done configuring”, as the pic shows below.
Selection_106

2.1.3 use  command “make” to compile and generate install files
$ sudo make                                                          // compile
Here comes a error:
In function ‘open’,inlined from ‘xmlNanoHTTPSave__internal_alias’ at nanohttp.c:1588:12:

/usr/include/x86_64-linux-gnu/bits/fcntl2.h:51:24: error: call to ‘__open_missing_mode’ declared with attribute error: open with O_CREAT in second argument needs 3 arguments

solution:
open and edit the nanohttp.c which is  on the current directory,see the 1588th line, and modify
fd = open(filename, O_CREAT | O_WRONLY);                   to
fd = open(filename, O_CREAT | O_WRONLY,0777);
as the pic shows below.
Selection_108

2.14 use command”make install” to install the software.Command lines as follow:
$ sudo make install                                               // install
if installed success, there will be 5 subdirectories bin, include ,lib, man and share under /usr/local/libxml2/, as the pic shows below.
Selection_109
*when we install php5 later, we’ll add “–with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2” to the configure options to  specify the location of  libxml2 library files.

2.2 install the newest libmcrypt library files
2.2.1 download the libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz from the link above or the official site, and put it into the directory /usr/local/src/, then extract it to directory libxml2-2.6.30/ and then get into that derectory. Command lines as follow:
$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      // enter the directory which the source package lays
$ sudo tar libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz                // extract it
$ cd libxml2-2.6.30/                                    // enter the directory

2.2.2 use command “configure” to check and configure the system environment and generate the configured files. Command lines as follow:
$ ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt
the option –prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt here is to tell the installer to install it to directory /usr/local/libmcrypt.
Here will use the g++ complier, and if there is not a g++, you should first do the sudo apt-get install g++ first.

2.2.3 use  command “make” to compile and generate install files
$ sudo make                                                          // compile

2.2.4 use command”make install” to install the software.Command lines as follow:
$ sudo make install                                              // install
if installed success, there will be 5 subdirectories bin, include ,lib, man and share under /usr/local/libmcrypt/, as the pic shows below.
Selection_110
*when we install php5 later, we’ll add “–with-mcrypt-dir=/usr/local/libmcrypt” to the configure options to  specify the location of  libmcrypt library files.

2.2.5 install the libltdl library files
when finished installing the libmcrypt, enter into the directory /usr/local/src/libmcrypt-2.5.8, and then enter the subdirectory libltdl. Follow the command lines below to finish the configure, compile and install:
$ cd /usr/local/src/libmcrypt-2.5.8/libltdl    // enter the directory which the source package lays
$ ./configure  –enable-ltdl-install                  // configure it
$ make                                                             // compile
$ make install                                                  // install
if installed success, there will be a header file ltdl.h under the directory /usr/local/include,as the pic show below.
Selection_112

2.3 install the newest zlib library files
2.3.1 download the zlib-1.2.7.tar.gz from the link above or the official site, and put it into the directory /usr/local/src/, then extract it to directory zlib-1.2.7/ and then get into that derectory. Command lines as follow:
$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      // enter the directory which the source package lays
$ sudo tar zxvf zlib-1.2.7.tar.gz                  // extract it
$ cd zlib-1.2.7/                                             // enter the directory

2.3.2 use command “configure” to check and configure the system environment and generate the configured files. Command lines as follow:
$ ./configure
you’d better not use the option –prefix=/usr/local/zlib here, because it will lead to failing  to locate the zlib library when install libpng.

2.3.3 use  command “make” to compile and generate install files
$ sudo make                                                          // compile

2.3.4 use command”make install” to install the software.Command lines as follow:
$ sudo make install                                              // install
if installed success, there will be 3 subdirectories include ,lib and share under /usr/local/zlib/, as the pic shows below.
Selection_113*when we install php5 later, we’ll add “–with-zlib-dir=/usr/local/zlib” to the configure options to  specify the location of  zlib library files.

2.4 install the newest libpng library files

2.4.1 Download the file: libpng-1.6.0.tar.gz from the above link or the official site , put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it to libpng-1.6.0/, then enter the directory using following command:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf libpng-1.6.0.tar.gz             // extract the file
$ cd libpng-1.6.0/                                        // enter the current directory

2.4.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows:

$ ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/libpng

“–prefix=/usr/local/libpng” means that the installing software will be installed under /usr/local/libpng.

ERROR: configure: error: zlib not installed

Solution at this blog: http://keping.me/2013-3-12-2/ (see the English version… I don’t like this solution but it’s the only effective one I have ever found. 🙁 )

2.4.3 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:

$ make                                                          // compile

2.4.4 use command make install to install:

$ make install                                              // install

If the installation succeeded, there would be four directories(bin/, include/, lib/, share/)generated under /usr/local/libpng, as following picture:

* When installing the GD2 lib, it should add the option –with-png-dir=/usr/local/libpng behind configure command to locate the position of libpng file.

2.5 install the newest jpeg6 library files

2.5.1 Download the jpegsrc.v6b.tar.gz file from above link or the official site,  put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it into  directory jpeg-6b/  and then enter the current directory jpeg-6b/. Commands as follows:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      // enter the directory where the source file is
$ sudo tar zxvf jpegsrc.v6b.tar.gz              // extract the file
$ cd jpeg-6b/                                                // enter the current directory

2.5.2 We need to create the installation directory manually when installing the jpeg6 lib files before installing the GD2. The installation directory will not be created automatically. The command as follows:

$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/jpeg6                          // create a installation directory
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/jpeg6/bin                   // create a directory saving commands
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/jpeg6/lib                     // create a jpeg6 directory
$ sudo mkdir /usr/local/jpeg6/include              // create a directory saving header files
$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/jpeg6/man/man1   // create a directory saving manual

2.5.3 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows: ( for displaying explicitly, use “\” to split the command for several lines):

$ sudo ./configure \
> –prefix=/usr/local/jpeg6/ \                // install the software into /usr/local/jpeg6
> –enable-shared \                                 // GUN’s libtool will be used when creating shared lib
> –enable-static                                       // GUN’s libtool will be used when creating static  lib

2.5.4 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:

$ make                                                          // compile

ERROR:

./libtool –mode=compile gcc -O2 -I. -c ./jcapimin.c
make: ./libtool: Command not found
make: *** [jcapimin.lo] Error 127

Solution:  http://keping.me/2013-4-12/ ( see the English version…:) )

2.5.5 use command make install to install:

$ make install                                              // install

* When installing the GD2 lib, it should add the option –with-jpeg-dir=/usr/local/jpeg6 behind configure command to locate the position of jpeg lib file.

So far, we have installed so many packages as following picture~~~Have a rest, please~~

2.6 install the newest freetype library files

2.6.1 Download the file freetype-2.3.5.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it into freetype-2.3.5/ and then enter the current directory. The commands as follows:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/                                      //  enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf freetype-2.3.5.tar.gz          // extract the file
$ cd freetype-2.3.5/                                     // enter the current directory

2.6.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows:

$ ./configure –prefix=/usr/local/freetype

“–prefix=/usr/local/freetype” means that the installing software will be installed under /usr/local/freetype.

2.6.3 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$make                                                      // compile

2.6.4 use command make install to install:
$ make install                                              // install

If the installation succeeded, there would be four directories(bin/, include/, lib/, share/)generated under /usr/local/freetype, as following picture:

* When installing the freetype lib, it should add the option –with-jpeg-dir=/usr/local/freetype behind configure command to locate the position of freetype lib file.

2.7 install the newest autoconf library files

2.7.1 Download the file autoconf-2.61.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it into autoconf-2.61/ and then enter the current directory. The commands as follows:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/            // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf autoconf-2.61.tar.gz          // extract the file
$ cd autoconf-2.61/                              // enter the current directory

2.7.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows:
$ ./configure

ERROR: configure: error: GNU M4 1.4 is required

Solution: $ sudo apt-get install m4

2.7.3 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$make                                                      // compile

2.7.4 use command make install to install:
$ make install                                              // install

2.8 install the newest GD library files

2.8.1 Download the file gd-2.0.35.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it into gd-2.0.35/ and then enter the current directory. The commands as follows:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/            // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf gd-2.0.35.tar.gz          // extract the file
$ cd gd-2.0.35/                              // enter the current directory

2.8.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows:

$ sudo ./configure \
> –prefix=/usr/local/gd2/ \                             // install the software into /usr/local/gd2
> –with-zlib=/usr/local/zlib/ \                         // locate zlib
> –with-jpeg=/usr/local/jpeg6/ \                    // locate jpeg6
> –with-png=/usr/local/libpng/ \                    // locate libpng
> –with-freetype=/usr/local/freetype/           // locate freetype 2.x font lib

2.8.3 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$make                                                      // compile

ERROR: gd_png.c:16:53: fatal error: png.h: No such file or directory

Solution: http://keping.me/2013-3-13/( see the English version 🙂 )

2.8.4 use command make install to install:
$ make install                                              // install

If the installation succeeded, there would be four directories(bin/, include/, lib/, share/)generated under /usr/local/gd2, as following picture:

* When installing the GD2 lib, it should add the option –with-jpeg-dir=/usr/local/gd2/ behind configure command to locate the position of GD lib file.

2.9 install the newest Apache server

2.9.1 Download the file httpd-2.4.4.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it into httpd-2.4.4/ and then enter the current directory. The commands as follows:

$ cd /usr/local/usr/            // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf  httpd-2.4.4.tar.gz          // extract the file
$ cd httpd-2.4.4/                              // enter the current directory

2.9.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows: ( for displaying explicitly, use “\” to split the command for several lines):

$ sudo ./configure \
> –prefix=/usr/local/apache2 \                // specify the installation location of Apache
> –sysconfdir=/etc/httpd  \                             // specify the location saving configuration files of Apache server
> –with-z=/usr/local/zlib/ \                             // specify the location of zlib
> –with-included-apr  \                                    // using the copy of bundled APR / APR-Util
> –disable-userdir \                                          // requests mapped to user-specific directories
> –enable-so \                                                   // compiled as dynamic sharing object(DSO)
> –enable-deflate=shared \                             // reduce the support of transmission encoding
> –enable-expires=shared \                            // support the control of the header files expiration
> –enable-rewrite=shared \                            // url control based on rules
> –enable-static-support                                 // create a support of a statically linked version

ERROR: configure: error: Bundled APR requested but not found at ./srclib/. Download and unpack the corresponding apr and apr-util packages to ./srclib/.

Solution: http://keping.me/2013-3-13-2/ (see the English version 🙂 )

2.9.3  use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$make                                                      // compile

2.9.4 use command make install to install:
$ make install                                              // install

If the installation succeeded, there would be twelve directories(bin/, build/, cgi-bin/, error/, htdocs/, icons/, include/, lib/, logs/, man/, manual/, modules/)generated under /usr/local/apache2, as following picture:

2.9.5 Start Apache server using following command:

$ sudo /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start

ERROR: AH00558: httpd: Could not reliably determine the server’s fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1. Set the ‘ServerName’ directive globally to suppress this message

Solution: modify the file httpd.conf under the directory /etc/httpd( the location specified when installing Apache server), as following picture:

and use following command to modify the file:

$ sudo vim /etc/httpd/httpd.conf

find the location of ServerName, as following picture:

add a line “ServerName localhost” under the ServerName, as following picture:

Restart Apache server with following command:

sudo /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart

To check whether it started successfully, use the grep command:

$ ps -ef | grep httpd

If there are 4/5 lines output, it started successfully, as following picture:

Also, we can check it by entering “localhost” in the your browser. If succeeded, the following content will occur:

2.9.6 Run on startup

Each server software need to be configured to run on startup. About Apache, we just need to add the start command line of Apache server in the file “/etc/rc.local”. Command as follows:

$ sudo vim /etc/rc.local

2.10 install the Mysql

2.10.1 Download the file mysql-5.6.10.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it to mysql-5.6.10/, and enter the current directory. The commands as follows:
$ cd /usr/local/usr/            // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf  mysql-5.6.10.tar.gz         // extract the file
$ cd mysql-5.6.10/                              // enter the current directory

2.10.2 Install cmake. The mysql 5.5 doesn’t use “./configure” command to configure and change to cmake, so we should install cmake. Check if there is cmake in your system with command as follows:

$ cmake -version

If there is no output as the following picture

you should install it by yourself:

$ sudo apt-get install cmake

2.10.3 Add new user group:

$ sudo groupadd mysql

2.10.4 Add new user:

$ sudo useradd mysql -g mysql

2.10.5 Create a new directory of database execution file :

$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/mysql

2.10.6 Create a new directory of new data file

$ sudo mkdir -p /db/mysql/data

2.10.8 Modify the directory owners:

$ sudo chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql
$ sudo chown -R mysql:mysql /db/mysql/data
$ sudo chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/.
$ sudo chown -R mysql:mysql /db/mysql/data/.

2.10.8 Configure with cmake:

cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_READLINE=1 \
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/db/mysql/data \
-DMYSQL_USER=mysql \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306

ERROR:CMake Error at cmake/readline.cmake:83 (MESSAGE):
Curses library not found. Please install appropriate package,

remove CMakeCache.txt and rerun cmake.On Debian/Ubuntu, package name is libncurses5-dev, on Redhat and derivates it is ncurses-devel.
Call Stack (most recent call first):
cmake/readline.cmake:126 (FIND_CURSES)
cmake/readline.cmake:193 (MYSQL_USE_BUNDLED_LIBEDIT)
CMakeLists.txt:325 (MYSQL_CHECK_READLINE)

Solution: according the prompt, install the missing package ncurses:

$ sudo apt-get install libncurses5-dev

adn then delete the cache files under current diretory:

$ sudo rm CMakeCache.txt

then reconfigure using cmake. Just copy commands above.

2.10.9 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$sudo make                                                      // compile

It shall take a long time to compile:

2.10.10 use command make install to install:
$ sudi make install                                              // install

2.10.11 copy the configuration file

$ sudo cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/my-default.cnf /etc/my.cnf

2.10.12 enter the installation path:

$ cd /usr/local/mysql

2.10.13 run the configuration script;

$ sudo ./scripts/mysql_install_db –user=mysql –datadir=/db/mysql/data

2.10.14 copy the service start script:

$ sudo cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql

2.10.15 start MySQL:

$ sudo service mysql start

2.10.16 set  password for root:

$ sudo /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password 123456

2.10.17 run on startup:

$ sudo update-rc.d mysql defaults

2.10.18 set mysql as system command:

$ sudo ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/* /bin/

after that, just execute the following command:

$ mysql -u root -p

you can login to mysql

2.10.19 set access permission

During installing MySQL, the application mysql_install_db installed the MySQL database authorization table. This table defines the initial accounts and authorizations of MySQL, and all accounts have no passwords. These accounts are super user accounts, they can perform any operations. Root account’s initial has no password, so anyone an use the root account without password to connect to MySQL server and get all permissions, which means MySQL installation is unprotected. If you want to prevent client form connecting without password, you should specify a password for anonymous account or delete anonymous account and set a password for MySQL users. Start MySQL client  console with “mysql –u root” to connect to MySQL server, command as follows:

$ mysql -u root -p

use the password set above (123456) to login, and perform:

mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.user WHERE Host=’localhost’ AND User=”;
Query OK, 1 rows affected (0.08 sec)
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;
Query OK, 1 rows affected (0.01 sec)

This means MySQL installed succeessfully~~

2.11 install the PHP

2.11.1 Download the file php-5.3.22.tar.gz on the above link or the official site, put it under /usr/local/src/, and extract it to php-5.3.22/, and enter the current directory. The commands as follows:
$ cd /usr/local/usr/            // enter the directory where the source code is
$ sudo tar zxvf  pcphp-5.3.22.tar.gz          // extract the file
$ cd php-5.3.22/                              // enter the current directory

2.11.2 Check and configure the installation environment with “configure” command, which will generate installation configuration file.  The command line as follows: ( for displaying explicitly, use “\” to split the command for several lines):

$ sudo ./configure \
> –prefix=/usr/local/php \                                                     // set the installation path for PHP5
> –with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc \                     // specify the path saving PHP5 configuration files
> –with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs \                   // locate Apache2
> –with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql/ \                                      // specify the installation directory of PHP5
> –with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2/ \                             // locate libxml2
> –with-png-dir=/usr/local/libpng/ \                                   // locate libpng
> –with-jpeg-dir=/usr/local/jpeg6/ \                                    // locate jpeg
> –with-freetype-dir=/usr/local/freetype/ \                        // locate freetype
> –with-gd=/usr/local/gd2/ \                                                // locate gd
> –with-zlib-dir=/usr/local/zlib/ \                                         // locate zlib
> –with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt/ \                              // locate libmcrypt
> –with-mysqli=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config \       // locate  MySQLi
> –enable-soap \                                                                    // enable SOAP
> –enable-mbstring=all \                                                       // enable multiple string
> –enable-sockets                                                                   // enable socket

2.11.3 use the make command to compile the source file and generate the installation file:
$make                                                      // compile
2.11.4 use command make install to install:
$ make install                                              // install
2.11.5 Create configuration file. Specify the location of configuration file by adding the option “–with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc/” when using “configure” command to install the configuration. Copy the “php.ini- dist” file from the source directory to specified
directory “/usr/local/php/etc/” and change its name to “php.int”:

$ sudo cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini      // create the configuration

2.11.6 Integrate Apache and PHP. Before compiling PHP, we add the option “–with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs” behind the configure command to make PHP as the Apache function. But we still need to modify Apache configuration file by adding PHP support to tell Apache certain extensions as PHP parse. For example, let Apache parse files with extensions like .php and .phtml to PHP. Open Apache configuration file /etc/httpd/httpd.conf, find the line “AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz” and under it add a command line “Addtype application/x-httpd- php .php .phtml”. Files with any extension can be parsed to PHP, as long as we add the type to the added command and separated with backspace, as following picture:

We add a line “AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .phps” in the end to take the file with .phps extensions as PHP source file for syntax highlighting.

2.11.7 Restart Apache server, for only after the restart changes of configuration file would take effect:

$ sudo /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl stop           // stop Apache service
$ sudo /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start           // start Apache service

2.11.8 Test the PHP environment. Create a directory named phpinfo/ under /usr/local/apache2/htdocs and create a file named index.php. Add following lines to the file:

<?php
phpinfo();
?>

Open your browser enter the URL”http://localhost/phpinfo/index.php”, if the following picture occurs, it means your LAMP is successfully installed.

The function phpinfo() is to output most information about the PHP current status. It includes the information of compilation and extension, the PHP version, server information and environment, PHP environment, system information, path, local configuration value , HTTP header information and PHP License. Due to the different of each system’s installation, the  function phpinfo() can be used to check the configuration of a particular system and available predefined variable. It’s also a valuable debug tool, because it includes all EGPCS data(Environment,GET,POST,Cookie,Server).

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Finally, we finished it

Sophia 译